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Toxoplasma

Seroprevalence Toxoplasma gondii in the western part of Romania is reported to be on average 64.8% and increases by age-35.0% in the population < 20 years versus 76.8% in those ≥ 70 years; there is a higher prevalence of T. gondii in rural areas (76.9%) than in urban (55.3%[Source]).

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the eastern area of Romania, between 1996-1999; the testing included batches of pregnant, newborns, HIV infected subjects, subjects with ocular conditions and lymphadenopathy. At 1.85% of apparently healthy pregnant women was established with high probability the diagnosis of acute infection with T. gondii. At 4.23% women belonging to a lot of pregnant with spontaneous abortion in the first period of pregnancy, the acute toxoplasmic infection could be incriminated as the causal agent. Serological screening carried out on blood from the umbilical cord to a batch of newborns revealed a seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies of 44.5%, with a case of asymptomatic congenital infection at birth. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in patients with corioretinitis was 68%. The study of the lot of subjects with Lymphadenopathy was able to demonstrate the involvement of acute toxoplasmic infection as a cause of their suffering in 12.8% of cases. The obtained results  confirm the broad spreading of T. gondii in the eastern area of Romania and the risk that this protozoan represents for the fetus and the HIV infected subject. A broader serological screening is required to mitigate the consequences  this infection entails [Source].

Rubella

The rubella notification rate in Romania between 1 May 2017 and 30 April 2018 is relatively low-between 0.01 and 0.99, as reported by the ECDC (European Centre for Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control). Unlike rubeola (measles) who have produced a large epidemic in Romania since 2017, rubella has relatively low prevalence in Romania in recent years, similar to Germany, Italy and Spain[Source].

CMV

Although no accurate figures are reported, CMV Seroprevalence is raised in Romania, as [presented by the European Commission’s Public Health website, a number of situations where testing for this infection becomes extremely important, even though it is not required by the sanitary law (such as pregnancy testing, organ transplantation, immunosuppressive, etc.)

In Romania, the prevalence of CMV infection, reported by different studies, is considered to vary between 70-80[Source].

HSV1

Unlike the HSV2 infection whose prevalence falls within the limits of Eastern Europe, the seroprevalence data of HSV1 infection show in Romania much higher values, over 85% in all age groups in the general population. The risk factors associated with the increased prevalence of HSV1 mainly hold a low level of education and belonging to rural areas [Source].

HSV2

The most recent studies related to the prevalence of HSV-2 infection show in Romania a prevalence of 15.2% in the general population, which falls within the limits of Eastern Europe, with values closer to a seroprevalence of 23.9% in Bulgaria, compared to 6% in Czech Republic and 9.3% in Poland[Source 1, Source 2].

Varicella-zoster Virus (VZV)

As with other high prevalence viral infections, no exact data data on the prevalence of VZV infection in Romania are reported, with diagnostic or reporting shortcomings, similar in other EU countries. However, a recently published meta-analysis shows an increase in the European rate of smallpox incidence (VZV Primoinfection) with age – starting from 1/1000 in children under 10 years, to 2/1000 in Adults < 40 years, 1 – 4/1000 in adults of 40 – 50 years, 7 – 8/1000 in case of those over 50 years, reaching up to 10/1000 over 80 years.

To underline fact that it is necessary to implement a unified methodology for diagnosing the VZV infection, and in addition, being one of the few TORCH infections that benefit from an efficient and low-sided vaccine (Varivax – a live attenuated vaccine), the dissemination of vaccination-related information is also recommended[Source].

Hepatitis B virus Infection (HBV)

The prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Romania is approximately 4.4% (with significant differences between different geographic regions of the country, with the lowest rates in Transylvania and Banat (3.1%) and more increased in Moldova-4.5%, Muntenia and Dobrogea-5.4%.

High prevalence values of HBV infection in Romania, above the values reported by the other European countries, together with the existence of an effective vaccine with extremely rare side effects (Recombivax HB – Merck and pharmaceuticals Engerix-B GlaxoSmithKline) represents an extremely strong motivation to develop also in Romania of strategies to educate the population regarding the prevention of HBV infection [Source].

Hepatitis C virus Infection (HCV)

Hepatitis C is endemic in many areas of the globe; for Romania the prevalence is considered to be averaging approximately 3 – 3.5%, but with large variations between the rural area (4.43%) compared to urban (2.76%) and with much higher values in older age groups [Source].

HIV infection

Data reported by the Ministry of Health (National Institute of Infectious Diseases “Prof. Dr. Matei Balş”- department  for monitoring and evaluation of HIV/AIDS infection) shows in Romania, on 30 June 2017, a total number of 22,250 cases of HIV/AIDS (cumulative between the years 1985-2017). Of these, the new HIV/AIDS cases detected at 1st semester of the year 2017 are represented by 303 infections, with 236 infections in most males in young age groups (20-29, 30-39 and 40-49 years), and the route of transmission was predominantly sexual, most Heterosexuals (135), other bisexuals (60), but the transmission of new cases has also been reported through injecting drugs (34 cases)[Source].

Zika virus

The National Centre for Monitoring and Control of Transmissible diseases reported that in Romania in July 2016 there have cases of import of Zika infection, but there are no indigenous cases yet; however, the infection should be monitored because the Zika virus is mainly transmitted through mosquito sting, the vectors being represented by Aedes Aegypti and Aedes albopictus and Aedes albopictus (usually found in South Africa/Asia) is also present in Romania since 2014 [Source].

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